In 1992, an environmental agreement (an international agreement) called the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was negotiated. The aim of the treaty was to reach an agreement between countries to limit the amount of greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent significant climate damage due to human activity. The agreement was reached due to international unrest and concerns about the future of the planet under the threat of climate change. The precursor to the Paris Agreement, the Kyoto Protocol, was introduced in 1997 and set emission targets, but did not stop global warming and greenhouse gas emissions continued to rise. One of the specific objectives of the agreement, as stated in Article 2, is as follows: as part of the coalition agreement, the three parties committed to reducing the country`s greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 7% per year by 2030, or 51%. They promised to enshrine in law the goal of achieving net-zero emissions by 2050, within the first 100 days of government, and to achieve a “green” economic recovery from the Covid 19 crisis. Some countries have developed plans to reduce their emissions, such as The Gambia, which has launched a massive reforestation project. However, not all countries are meeting their commitments and, for now, the international community is not doing enough to keep our global temperature rise below two degrees. For some countries, especially developing countries, it is because they do not have enough money to invest in the technologies they need. Others, such as the United States (which will withdraw from the agreement in 2020), are not taking any action for political reasons. Ireland`s obligations under the burden-sharing decision will be taken in 2020 and the EU Burden-Sharing Regulation (ESR) will follow on that date. This Regulation sets binding annual GHG emission targets for Member States for the period 2021-including 2030. Under the ESR, Member States` targets are based on GDP per capita and the cost-effectiveness of national emission reductions in individual Member States.
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